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This section gives an overview of the models developed and maintained at PBL to address several questions on climate change by the scientific and policy community. These models are internationally accepted and published in many scientific journals.

IMAGE: Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment

IMAGE is a dynamic integrated assessment modeling framework for global change. The main objectives of IMAGE are to contribute to scientific understanding and support decision-making by quantifying the relative importance of major processes and interactions in the society-biosphere-climate system

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The FAIR model is a tool to analyze environmental and costs implications of climate regimes. The policy decision-support-tool FAIR aims to assess the environmental and abatement costs implications of climate regimes for differentiation of future commitments. The model links long-term climate targets and global reduction objectives with regional emissions allowances and abatement costs, accounting for the used Kyoto Mechanisms.


The EDGAR information system is a joint project of MNP, TNO-MEP, JRC-IES and MPIC-AC, and stores global emission inventories of direct and indirect greenhouse gases from anthropogenic sources including halocarbons and aerosols both on a per country and region basis as well as on a grid. The EDGAR system can generate global, regional and national emissions data in various formats. For all compounds and sources this has presently been done for 1990 and 1995.

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HYDE (The History Database of the Global Environment) presents not only (gridded) time series for the last 12000 years of global population and land use, but also various other indicators such as GDP, Value Added, Livestock, Private Consumption, GHG emissions, and Industrial production data.

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