Research at the Speulder forest: assessment of the effects acidification , eutrophication and ozone
Within the framework of the Dutch Priority Program on Acidification, 10 years of research was conducted at the Douglas fir Speulder forest. The aim of the combined research was to determine the exposure and loads of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants, as well as their harmful influence on the vitality of Douglas fir trees and the forest ecosystem as a whole.
Research was conducted to establish the levels and loads of acidifying pollutants and ozone, to determine forest characteristics and follow growth parameters and nutrient status in time and to determine the effects of reduction of loads and levels by manipulation experiments. In this report the results of 10 years of research are used to assess the causal relation between loads and levels on the one hand and effects on the other. For this, critical levels and critical loads were determined specifically for the Speulder forest, and the evolution of its exceedance was assessed. These exceedances were compared to the observed effects, which are defined as ecosystem changes as a result of environmental impacts.
|Author(s)||Erisman JW ; Draaijers GPJ ; Steingrover E ; Dijk H van ; Boxman A ; Vries W de|