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Publications

1770 results
  1. Evaluation of green deals for a circular economy

    PBL has evaluated the role of Green Deals in preparing the path towards a circular economy. The evaluation shows that although Green Deals make a valuable contribution to the process of green...

  2. Exploring future changes in land use and land condition and the impacts on food, water, climate change and biodiversity: Scenarios for the UNCCD Global Land Outlook

    The pressure on land is growing in many regions of the world, due to the increasing demand for arable crops, meat and dairy products, bio-energy and timber, and is exacerbated by land degradation...

  3. The role of decentralized systems in providing universal electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa – A model-based approach

    Poverty and lack of access to electricity are highly correlated. In Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the poorest regions in the world, two in every three people have no access to electricity. This paper...

  4. Early action on Paris Agreement allows for more time to change energy systems

    The IMAGE integrated assessment model was used to develop a set of scenarios to evaluate the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted by Parties under the Paris Agreement. The scenarios...

  5. Perspectives on the future of nature in Europe: impacts and combinations

    Halting biodiversity loss in the EU requires substantial policy action. The Nature Outlook study elaborates four perspectives on the future of nature, in search for new policy approaches. This...

  6. Implementing the “Sustainable Development Goals”: towards addressing three key governance challenges—collective action, trade-offs, and accountability

    Realising the aspirations of the “Sustainable Development Goals” (SDGs) to reduce inequality, limit ecological damage, and secure resilient livelihoods is a grand challenge for sustainability...

  7. People and the Earth

    With the adoption of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the world committed to an economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable world. The corresponding objectives, laid down...

  8. How natural capital delivers ecosystem services: A typology derived from a systematic review

    To help decision-makers understand the links between natural capital and ecosystem services (i.e. nature’s contribution to people) a simple typology was developed showing how attributes of natural...

  9. Impact of LULCC on the emission of BVOCs during the 21st century

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) is one of the key drivers of anthropogenic climate change. In addition to greenhouse gases such as CO 2 or CH 4 , LULCC affects also the emission of...

  10. Modeling the Effects of Future Growing Demand for Charcoal in the Tropics

    Global demand for charcoal is increasing mainly due to urban population in developing countries. More than half the global population now lives in cities, and urban-dwellers are restricted to...