Transformative change is needed
For land, food and biodiversity, as well as for energy, climate and air pollution, marginal improvements will not suffice to achieve long-term sustainable development goals; large, transformative changes are needed
Although the scenario analysis shows that, technically, development and environmental goals could be achieved, this would require rather bold, systemic changes. Decoupling of CO2 emissions from economic growth needs to take place at 4% to 6% a year, compared to an annual historical rate of around 1% to 2%. In agriculture, an average annual productivity increase of around 1% would be needed. This is comparable to historical rates, but the increase would have to continue for a long time period, as well as in areas that did not have significant yield increases in the past.