Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2003 - National Inventory Report 2005

02-05-2005 | Publication

The National Inventory Report ‘Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Netherlands 1990-2003’ is now available. This report has been published at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. It documents the Netherlands’ 2005 submission of its greenhouse gas emission inventory produced annually in accordance with the European Union’s Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the United Nation’s Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Main conclusions

It was concluded that total CO2-equivalent emissions of the six greenhouse gases together increased in 2003 by about 1 % relative to 1990 (1995 for fluorinated gases) (excluding LUCF). Emissions of CO2 excluding LUCF increased from 1990 to 2003 by 12%, while in the same period CH4 and N2O emissions decreased by about 32% and 19%, respectively. For the fluorinated greenhouse gases, for which 1995 is the reference year, total emissions decreased by 60%. Emissions of HFCs and PFCs decreased by 75% and 25% in 2005, respectively, while SF6 emissions increased by 11% above the 1995 level. Special attention is paid to documenting the many recalculations performed to improve transparency and consistency over time and, thus, to better comply with IPCC and UNFCCC guidelines on methodologies and reporting.

Major changes from the previous National Inventory Report


The Most sectors have been thoroughly recalculated, to bring the methods for key sources in line with IPCC Good Practice requirements to improve transparency and consistency over time:

  • CO2: the overall trend in CO2 emissions (excluding LUCF) hardly changed compared to the previous NIR (+0.2% in 1990 and -0.1% in 2002). Please note that recalculating the LUCF category 5A Forests and adding LUCF emissions from soils, categories 5B to 5D resulted in a significant change in net emissions/removals from a net sink of about 1.5 Tg CO2 (partial estimate for 5A), to a net source of about 2.8 Tg CO2.
  • CH4: an increase of 3% in the trend of CH4 emissions (from -32% to -29%).
  • N2O: a decrease of 9% in the trend of N2O emissions from (-7% to -16%).
  • F-gases: HFCs emission data only show marginal changes, the trend of PFCs emissions changed from -50% to -33% (increase of 17%) and SF6 increased from 58% to 65% (plus 7%).

The overall old 1990-2002 trend of all gases (excl. LUCF) hardly changed compared to the previous inventory report, from 1.1% to 0.8% (a small decrease of -0.3%).

Key sources

Newly identified key sources are:

  • Energy: CO2 from waste incineration, coke production, fugitive emissions from venting and flaring; and N2O from mobile combustion: road vehicles;
  • Industrial processes (i.e. non-combustion): CO2 from iron and steel production (carbon inputs), ammonia production, other chemical manufacture; and N2O from caprolactam production and indirect N2O from non-agricultural sources;
  • Agriculture: CH4 from enteric fermentation: ‘other’; and N2O from manure management;
  • LUCF: CO2 from LUCF (now a source, not a sink);
  • Waste: N2O from wastewater handling.


Methodological changes are described in Section 1.4.

  • Fuel use and emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) from fossil fuels (static combustion, processes and feedstocks) have been recalculated, based now on the National Energy Statistics, country-specific emission factors, and on specific circumstances (Sector 1A and 2)
  • Agricultural emissions saw major methodological changes, in particular in CH4 emission factors for enteric fermentation of cattle and of manure management systems (for all animal categories) and in the calculation of indirect agricultural N2O soil emissions.
  • LUCF sector CO2 emissions/removals have now been estimated for most activities.

More information

Visit the Netherlands Greenhouse gas Inventory website for additional information on the Netherlands greenhouse gas inventories and the emission inventory system.

Key methodology report (English version)

Apart from Annex 2 and 3 of the report, the methodology and data sources used are described in more detail in the monitoring protocols for greenhouse gas emission sources/removals. These will be made available at the website mentioned above (Ruyssenaars, 2005).