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Greening the Dutch car fleet: the role of differentiated sales taxes

In the Netherlands, car taxes since 2006 have become increasingly dependent on a vehicle's CO2 emission level. This ultimately resulted in the introduction of a progressive tax system, related to this emission level, for the vehicle sales tax (VST) in 2010. This study shows...

Non-ETS emission targets for 2030

The European Commission has launched a discussion with its Green Paper on climate and energy policies. PBL has analysed the effects of various assumptions on Member States' emission targets for 2030 under the Effort Sharing Decision. If the EU decides to reduce its emissions...

Carbon price floor to save ETS - Guest Commentary

The functioning of the European Union (EU) emission trading system (ETS) is under debate. Although the ETS guarantees emission reductions by 2020, the current low prices fuel doubts about whether it will remain a key policy instrument of EU climate policy. Such doubts...

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