Logo of the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency
To the main menuTo the main content
Sustainable Development

Models about Sustainable Development


The Global Integrated Sustainability MOdel (GISMO) is a modelling framework to analyze developments in Quality of Life in relation to the three sustainability domains: People-Planet-Profit. GISMO enables to analyze the effects of specific policies on broad human development, and the interaction with the environment.

GLOBIO3: A global biodiversity model

The GLOBIO3 model uses quantitative relationships between environmental pressure factors and biodiversity, based on state-of-the-art knowledge from literature. By combining the results related to individual pressures, the overall change in biodiversity is calculated in terms of Mean Species Abundance of original species (MSA) and the extent of eco­systems.


HYDE (The History Database of the Global Environment) presents not only (gridded) time series for the last 12000 years of global population and land use, but also various other indicators such as GDP, Value Added, Livestock, Private Consumption, GHG emissions, and Industrial production data.

To the website

IMAGE: Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment

IMAGE is a dynamic integrated assessment modeling framework for global change. The main objectives of IMAGE are to contribute to scientific understanding and support decision-making by quantifying the relative importance of major processes and interactions in the society-biosphere-climate system

To the website