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The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century

Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr-1) within...

Exploring global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. This paper presents the first model-based inventory with 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution of global Cryptosporidium emissions from humans and animals to surface water in the year 2000. Our results may...

The Role of Nitrate in Human Health

The EU and the World Health Organization apply a drinking water standard for nitrate in drinking water of 50 milligrams per litre. The risks to human health posed by nitrate in drinking water have been an issue of debate for many years. Drinking water is only one - and often...

Nitrogen: 'Too much of a good thing'

Nitrogen pollution costs the European Union between €70 billion and €320 billion per year. This cost is more than double the value that nitrogen fertilizers are estimated to add to European farm income.