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The European climate and energy package for 2030: is it adequate?


On Wednesday 22 January, the European Commission published a new climate target for 2030: a reduction in greenhouse gases of 40%, relative to 1990 levels. If the EU was to contribute in accordance with its economic strength to limiting global warming to 2 degree Celsius, it should aim for an emission reduction of 45% to 47%.


Regional Competitiveness and Smart Specialization in Europe


Regions differ from each other, economically – they compete over different products and geographical areas, exhibit different strengths and weaknesses, and provide different possibilities for growth and development. That which fosters growth in one region may hamper it in another. This book presents an accessible methodology for identifying competitors and their particular circumstances in Europe, discusses regional competitiveness from a conceptual perspective, and explores both past and future regional development policies in Europe.

2012 sees slowdown in the increase in global CO2 emissions


Actual global emissions of CO2 reached a new record of 34.5 billion tonnes in 2012. Yet, the increase in global CO2 emissions slowed down to 1.1%, which was less than half the average annual increase of 2.9% over the last decade. This development signals a shift towards less fossil-fuel-intensive activities, more use of renewable energy and increased energy saving.

Developing countries’ contributions to climate change approach 50%


There are several ways to calculate countries’ contributions to climate change, with widely varying outcomes.  Taking into account all greenhouse gas emissions emitted between 1850 and 2010, the relative contribution by developing countries to global cumulative emissions is now 48%.


PBL organizes two seminars during the IABR

As part of the International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam (IABR, the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency organizes two symposia. Both will take place in The Kunsthal in Rotterdam. On June, 5: ‘The infrastructure of the Smart City’ (in Dutch); on June, 19: ‘Global challenges, urban futures’.

Changing track, changing tack; Dutch ideas for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century

In this essay, PBL analyses 40 years of Dutch environmental policy and draws lessons for the future. Present and future environmental challenges require new approaches, primarily because the old policy repertoire does not fit our modern network society.