Heleen holds a B.Sc. degree in Environmental Sciences (major Environmental quality and systems analysis, minor Climate change, a systems analysis approach) and an M.Sc. degree in Climate Studies (major Earth system science), both from Wageningen University. After university, she worked as a freelance researcher and consultant in the fields of philanthropy and climate science. Between 2014 and 2021, she worked as a researcher on international climate policy at PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, department of Climate, Air and Energy. In that position, she worked on projects for the European Commission, supporting DG Climate Action, as well as the Horizon 2020 projects CD-LINKS and ENGAGE. She further worked on the MILES project and jointly managed the COMMIT project. She was a visiting researcher at IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis) between October and December 2017. Her work involved providing DG Climate Action with scientific input for the climate negotiations, e.g. evaluating national climate and energy policies by quantifying their expected effect on greenhouse gas emissions until 2030 and comparing them to international emission reduction pledges (most notably NDCs). It further involved developing 2 °C-consistent scenarios starting from these policies and NDCs, using PBL’s IMAGE model. In addition, she analysed country-level energy system and emission pathways from both global and national mitigation scenarios, including their implications for and links with other sustainable development goals. Her international climate policy analysis work culminated in a PhD thesis at Utrecht University (April, 2022): ‘Mind the Gap – Applying Integrated Assessment Models to Inform International and National Climate Policy on Bridging the Emissions Gap’. Since January 2022, she has been working on the Dutch Climate and Energy Outlook at PBL.