This paper presents the results of an online stated choice experiment on the preference of Dutch private car owners for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Results show that the negative preference for alternative fuel vehicles is large, especially for electric and fuel cell cars, mostly because of their limited driving range and considerable recharching and refuelling times. The preference for AFVs increases significantly with improvements in driving range, recharging and refuelling times and the availability of charging and filling stations. Negative AFV preference remains, however, also after substantial improvements in AFV characteristics; the remaining willingness to accept is on average € 10,000–€ 20,000 per AFV.
Results from a mixed logit model show that consumer preferences for AFVs and AFV characteristics are mostly heterogeneous; in particular, with respect to electric cars, additional travel time and charging/fuelling times for electric and fuel cell cars. An interaction model reveals that annual mileage is by far the most important factor determining heterogeneity in preferences for electric and fuel cell cars. When annual mileage increases, the preference for electric and fuel cell cars decreases substantially, whereas the willingness to pay for having a larger driving range increases substantially. Other variables, such as using the car to commute or for holidays abroad, also appear to be relevant for car choice.