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Costs of offshore wind energy 2018

The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate requested PBL to conduct an update on SDE+ base amounts and grid connection costs of offshore wind energy in the Netherlands, based on current market insights. This note presents the results of the update, which were drawn on...

Energy Transition Implications for Demand and Supply of Power System Flexibility: A Case Study of the Netherlands Within an EU Electricity Market and Trading Context

The Netherlands is aiming for a more sustainable, low-carbon energy system. For the power system, this energy transition implies (1) a larger share of electricity from variable renewable energy (VRE), in particular from sun and wind; (2) a larger share of electricity in total...

The Future of the North Sea

The scenario study ‘The Future of the North Sea’ explores the spatial and ecological impact of possible developments on the North Sea, up to 2050, with regard to nature, energy transition and food supply. The PBL study uses four scenarios to do so.