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A ‘Paris moment’ for Biodiversity? How the Paris Agreement can provide insights for a new UN biodiversity strategy


Countries have failed to realise most of the internationally agreed biodiversity goals and targets, and biodiversity loss is expected to continue. Continuing business-as-usual is not an option, and rethinking biodiversity governance is needed.


With local action, major economies can get closer to meeting Paris climate targets


Action by cities, states, regions and business can go a long way towards meeting the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement, but their actions alone are not enough to hold global temperature increase to well-below 2°C and work towards limiting it to 1.5° C.

Energy transition calls for a long-term strategy for the North Sea


A strong increase in the number of offshore wind farms outside the 12-mile zone means that room on the North Sea is becoming scarce. This calls for a strategy for the North Sea that runs up to 2050, as a time horizon of 2030 would be insufficient for effectively combining objectives for climate, nature and fisheries.



Mobility and electricity in the digital age

Digitisation has unmistakably entered a crucial phase in infrastructure, especially in mobility and electricity. In this report, PBL explores the related comprehensive societal consequences.

Blog post in Climate Stragegies

How learning from the past could help to bring the Paris Agreement climate goals closer within reach. Blog post by Mark Roelfsema, Michel den Elzen and Detlef van Vuuren, researchers International Climate Policy at PBL.

The geography of future water challenges

What is the impact of the growing global population, further urbanisation and climate change on water risks, food supply and migration? The geography of future water challenges uses powerful images to provide insight into these global challenges up to 2050.

Linking water security threats to conflict

The relationship between water issues and conflict risks received much attention, both in the literature and the media. PBL provides an extensive overview of the available literature and debates and analyses the certainties and uncertainties in the water and conflict domain.

Opportunities for a circular economy

Countries in Europe can profit from a circular economy. This 1-page website covers all aspects of a circular economy, showing that it involves much more than merely recycling materials.