There is significant emission reduction potential in the Dutch vegetable oil and fat industry, which consists of seven companies each producing more than 10 kt CO2 per year, emitting a total of 0.36 Mt CO2 in 2018. Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves are constructed to provide an overview of the most cost-effective decarbonisation options. Both energy efficiency technologies and alternative heating systems are combined in order to achieve technological configurations for full decarbonisation of this industry.
Energy consumption for vegetable oil processing can be reduced by 44% for rapeseed oil, 45% soybean oil, and 57% for palm oil. Vertical Ice Condensing is the most cost-effective decarbonisation option, while biogas boilers are the most cost-effective alternative heating systems that can supply energy in all stages of production.
However, the availability of processing residues limits the energy substitution possible with biogas boilers. Electric boilers are therefore required to deliver the residual energy necessary to realise zero carbon emissions.
Together the cost-effective decarbonisation options can abate between 38% and 40% of the total CO2 emissions by 2020 and 2030 respectively.