Decarbonisation options for the Dutch fertiliser industry

This report on decarbonisation options for the Dutch fertiliser industry is part of the MIDDEN project (Manufacturing Industry Decarbonisation Data Exchange Network) initiated by PBL and ECN part of TNO. The project aims to support industry, policymakers, analysts and the energy sector in their common efforts to achieve deep decarbonisation.

Fertiliser production in the Netherlands

This report describes the current situation for fertiliser production in the Netherlands and the options and preconditions for its decarbonisation.

In the Netherlands, the four main fertiliser producing companies are Yara Sluiskil B.V., OCI Nitrogen B.V., ICL Fertilisers and Rosier Nederland. This report focuses on the nitrogen-based fertiliser production at Yara Sluiskil and OCI Nitrogen, because these are the largest companies in terms of production volume and energy consumption.

Processes include:

  • Production of ammonia from natural gas;
  • Production of urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide;
  • Production of nitric acid from ammonia.

Products of the fertiliser industry include:

  • Ammonia;
  • Nitric acid;
  • Ammonium Nitrate (AN);
  • Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN);
  • Urea;
  • Urea Ammonium Nitrate (UAN);
  • Compound fertilisers.

Decarbonisation options

The main decarbonisation options are using hydrogen with a lower CO2 footprint (e.g. green hydrogen from electrolysis) and carbon capture and storage.

Mapping decarbonisation options is an ongoing process. The MIDDEN project will update and elaborate further on options in the future, in close connection with the industry.

An update to this report was published on February 6, 2024.


Other authors
Masooma Batool
Wouter Wetzels (ECN part of TNO)


Publication title
Decarbonisation options for the Dutch fertiliser industry
Publication date
3 October 2019
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