Integrated Assessment of Global Environmental Change with IMAGE 3.0 - Model description and policy applications


The IMAGE integrated assessment modelling framework has been developed to understand how global, long-term environmental change and sustainability problems develop over time, driven by human activities, such as economic development and population growth. In the new model documentation, we provide a complete and concise description of the IMAGE 3.0 integrated assessment model framework, and highlight how the model is used to assess key policy issues, such as climate change, air pollution, land-use change, biodiversity loss, and water scarcity. The model documentation has been published as a book and in the form of a website.

Integrated assessment model IMAGE

Similar to other integrated assessment models, IMAGE can be used to identify problems of global environmental change, and to advise on possible response strategies. Earlier versions of the IMAGE model have been used to support various international assessments, including IPCC assessments, UNEP’s Global Environment Outlooks, OECD’s Environmental Outlooks and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Moreover, the model has been extensively used in the scientific literature. In IMAGE 3.0, the descriptions of several critical areas of global environmental change have been improved, including the dynamics of land-use change, water use, and energy demand and production. This strengthens its relevance for addressing questions, such as how to reduce biodiversity loss and climate change, while safeguarding food and energy security.

Specifieke bestelinstructie


PBL Authors
Elke Stehfest Detlef van Vuuren Tom Kram Lex Bouwman Rob Alkemade Michel Bakkenes Arno Bouwman Michel den Elzen Jan Janse Paul Lucas Jelle van Minnen Anne Gerdien Prins
Other authors
Hester Biemans
Christoph Müller


Publication title
Integrated Assessment of Global Environmental Change with IMAGE 3.0
Publication date
7 July 2014
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