Aardappelakker en jachthaven in Hoeven, naast rivier De Mark, met op de achtergrond windmolens

PBL - Independent research for a future-proof Netherlands

Climate researcher who bridges different disciplines

Detlef van Vuuren
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PBL: Updated spatial density dataset provides new insights into land use

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The importance of understanding differences in climate policy scenario outcomes

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Sizeable global emission gap in 2050 remains for net-zero pledges

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Recent publications

Trends and geographic variation in adverse impacts of nitrogen use in Europe on human health, climate, and ecosystems: A review

Cows in the Vosges Mountains

Environmental impacts of extraction and processing of raw materials for the energy transition

open mijnbouw


raw materials
production chain
climate change
energy transition
heat transition
greenhouse gases
sun and wind
nature reserves
cultural landscape
attracting foreign companies
spatial differentiation
regional strengths

About PBL

PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency is the national institute for strategic policy analysis in the fields of the environment, nature and spatial planning. We contribute to improving the quality of political and administrative decision-making by conducting outlook studies, analyses and evaluations in which an integrated approach is considered paramount. Policy relevance is the prime concern in all of our studies. We conduct solicited and unsolicited research that is independent and scientifically sound.