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Plastic futures and their CO2 emissions

A circular bioeconomy can dramatically rein in the fast-growing plastic sector’s climate, pollution, and resource consumption impacts. Under current policies, global plastic production will likely triple by the year 2100. Today, the plastic sector is responsible for almost 5%...

Circular Economy Progress Report 2022

This Circular Economy Progress Report 2022 provides an update of the progress and transition towards a circular economy. It builds on the conclusions published by PBL in January 2021 in the Integral Circular Economy Report (ICER 2021). A number of indicators from the ICER...

Possible objectives for a circular economy

At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, PBL identifies possible objectives for a circular economy. Changes in the way raw materials are used may contribute substantially to solving various major social issues, such as the impact of climate...

Extended Producer Responsibility

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a widely used policy to support the transition to a circular economy in the European Union. In these two reports, PBL and CPB analyse the design, functioning and effects of EPR, based on a survey of the literature and on case studies...

Outline of the circular economy

In many countries, governments are looking for ways to change their economy into one that is circular, or to improve the level of resource efficiency (e.g. see the EU programme ‘Closing the loop’ or the World Circular Economy Forum). To do so effectively, having an overview...

Circular Economy: what we want to know and can measure

With the government-wide programme ‘A circular economy in the Netherlands by 2050’, the Dutch Government has outlined its plans for the transition towards a circular economy. To be able to track whether that transition is on course, a monitoring system is needed. Our report...

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